Bitcoin Forum - Index

I o T A S uP p O R t

Support for all your IOTA (Cryptocurrency) related problems. For hatred of pending transactions, to advanced hatred of API, and volleyball.
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Horizen

Horizen is an inclusive ecosystem built on its massively scalable blockchain platform where everyone is empowered and rewarded for their contributions. Launched in 2017, our leading-edge platform enables real-life uses outside of our cryptocurrency, ZEN.
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ZenSys Archive (Use /r/Horizen!)

Please use our new /Horizen Subreddit ZenCash is a private, decentralized, and reliable platform for communications, transactions, and publishing. In production using zero-knowledge proofs for anonymous transactions with an encrypted memo field stored on the ZenCash blockchain.
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Spreading Crypto: In Search of the Killer Application

Spreading Crypto: In Search of the Killer Application
This is the second post of our Spreading Crypto series where we take a deep dive into what it’ll take to help this technology reach broader adoption.
Mick exploring the state of apps in crypto
Our previous post explored the history of protocols and how they only become widely adopted when a compelling application makes them more accessible and easier to use.
Crypto will be no different. Blockchain technology today is mostly all low-level protocols. As with the numerous protocols that came before, these new, decentralized protocols need killer applications.
So, how’s that going? Where is crypto’s killer application? What’s the state of application development within our industry? Today we’ll try to answer those questions. We’ll also take a close look at decentralized applications — as that’s where a lot of the developer energy and focus currently is. Let’s dive in.

Popular Crypto Applications

The most popular crypto applications today are exchanges like Coinbase and Binance — each with tens of millions of users. Other popular crypto exchanges include Kraken, Bitstamp, Gemini, and Bitfinex. In recent years, new derivatives platforms have emerged like FTX and Deribit.
The most popular crypto applications today are primarily focused on trading, speculation, and finance. This class of applications dwarfs all other types of applications in terms of users and growth. That’s either a sign of strong product/market fit, or we just haven’t yet discovered other good use-cases. Or a mix of both.
https://preview.redd.it/8rnxghfrdh551.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=b3df8c3d87410f6b84432df79528ee4324daf04d
Beyond the fact that the most popular crypto applications are all used for speculation, another common thread is that they are all centralized.
A centralized application means that ultimate power and control rests with a centralized party (the company who built it). For example, if Coinbase or Binance wants to block you from withdrawing your funds for whatever reason (maybe for suspicious activity or fraud), they can do that. They have control of their servers so they have control of your funds.
Most popular applications that we all use daily are centralized (Netflix, Facebook, Youtube, etc). That’s the standard for modern, world-class applications today.

Decentralized Applications

Even though the most popular crypto applications are all centralized, most of the developer energy and focus in our industry is with decentralized applications (dApps) and non-custodial products.
These are products where only the user can touch or move funds. Not even the company or developer who built the application can access or control or stop funds from being moved. Only the user has control.
These applications allow users to truly become their own bank and have absolute control of their money.
They also allow users to perform blockchain transactions and interact directly with decentralized protocols. Some of the most popular non-custodial products include Ledger, MetaMask, and MyCrypto (#ProudInvestor).
While the benefits of this type of application are obvious (user has full control of their funds), it comes with a lot of tradeoffs. We will cover that later in this post.
https://preview.redd.it/rs6tj7vsdh551.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=86fe5bca3a9466abab5e78c9873ce3b57609f2d2

Libertarianism + Crypto

If the most popular applications tend to be centralized (inside and out of crypto), why is so much of our community focused on building decentralized applications (dApps)? For the casual observer, that’s a reasonable, valid question.
“Not your keys, not your coins.”
This meme is endlessly repeated among longtime crypto hodlers. If you’re not in complete control of your crypto (i.e. using non-custodial wallets or dApps), then it’s not really your crypto.
Engrained in the early culture of Bitcoin has always been a strong distrust for centralized authority and power — including the too-big-to-fail government-backed financial system. In the midst of the Financial Crisis, Satoshi Nakamoto included this headline in Bitcoin’s genesis block: “Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks.” There has always been a close connection between libertarianism & cryptocurrency.
So it’s no surprise that much of the crypto developer community is spending their time building applications that are non-custodial or decentralized. It’s part of the DNA, the soul, the essence of our community.
https://preview.redd.it/fy33zhkvdh551.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=386c741f13e9119ecfcfffe1c781d09ce58704ed

Personal Experience

When I was at Mainframe, we built Mainframe OS — a platform that developers use to build and launch decentralized applications (dApps). I’m deeply familiar with what’s possible and what’s not in the world of dApps. I have the battle scars and gray hair to prove it. We’ve hosted panels around the various challenges. We’ve even produced videos poking fun at how complicated it is for end-users to interact with.
After having spent three years in the trenches of this non-custodial world, I no longer believe that decentralized applications are capable of bringing crypto to the masses.
While I totally understand and appreciate the ethos of self-sovereignty, independence, and liberty… I think it’s a terrible mistake that as a community we are spending most of our time in this area of application development. Decentralized applications will not take crypto to the masses.
Mainframe OS

Overwhelming Friction

The user friction that comes with decentralized applications is just too overwhelming. Let’s go through a few of the bigger points:
  1. Knowledge & Education: Most non-custodial products do not abstract away any of the blockchain complexity. In fact, they often expose more of it because the most loyal users are crypto nerds. Imagine how a normie n00b feels when she starts seeing words like seed phrases, public & private keys, gas limits, transaction fees, blockchain explorers, hex addresses, and confirmation times. There is a lot for a user to learn and become educated on. That’s friction. The learning curve on this is just too damn high.
  2. User Experience: It is currently impossible to create a smooth and performant user experience in non-custodial wallets or decentralized applications. Any interaction that requires a blockchain transaction will feel sluggish and slow. We built a messaging app on Ethereum and presented it at DevCon3 in Cancun. The technical constraints of blockchain technology were crushing to the user experience. We simply couldn’t create the real-time, modern messaging experience that users have come to expect from similar apps like Slack or WhatsApp. Until blockchains are closer in speed to web servers (which will be difficult given their decentralized nature), dApps will never be able to create the smooth user experience that the masses expect.
  3. Loss of Funds Risk: There is no “Forgot Password” functionality when storing your own crypto in a non-custodial wallet. There is no customer support agent you can ping. There is no company behind it that can make you whole if you make a mistake and lose your money. You are on your own. One wrong move and your money is all gone. If you lose your private key, there is no way to recover your funds. This just isn’t the type of customer support experience people want or are used to.
Onyx Messaging App

What Our Industry Has Wrong

Decentralized applications will always have a place in the market — especially among the most hardcore crypto people and parts of the world where these tools are essential. I’m personally an active user of many non-custodial products. I’m a blockchain early-adopter, I like to hold my own money, and I’m very forgiving of suboptimal UX.
However, I’m not afraid to say the poop stinks. Decentralized applications simply cannot produce the type of product experience that mainstream consumers expect.
If the goal is growth and adoption, as a community I believe we’re barking up the wrong tree. We are trying to make fetch happen. It isn’t gonna happen. Our Netscape Moment is unlikely to arrive as long as we’re focused on decentralized applications.
\"Mean Girls\" movie
There’s a reason why the most popular consumer applications are centralized (Spotify, Amazon, Instagram, etc). There’s a reason why the most popular crypto applications are centralized (Coinbase, Binance, etc).
The frameworks, tooling, infrastructure, and services to support these modern, centralized applications are mature and well-established. It’s easier to build apps that are fast & performant. It’s easier to launch apps that are convenient and on all form-factors (especially mobile). It’s easier to distribute and promote via all the major app store channels (iOS/Android). It’s easier to patch, update, and upgrade. It’s easier to experiment and iterate.
It’s easier to design, build, and launch a world-class application when it is centralized! It is why we’ve chosen this path for Genesis Block.
---
Other Ways to Consume This Content:
We have a lot more content coming. Be sure to follow our channels: https://genesisblock.com/follow/
Have you already downloaded the app? We're Genesis Block, a new digital bank that's powered by crypto & decentralized protocols. The app is live in the App Store (iOS & Android). Get the link to download at https://genesisblock.com/download
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Trading with iceberg orders mode on the Binance Exchange via Moonbot

Trading with iceberg orders mode on the Binance Exchange via Moonbot
Binance Exchange allows API users to trade with iceberg orders. It is important to note that iceberg orders are not available from the website or the official application of the exchange.
Binance Exchange allows API users to trade with iceberg orders.
An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water. About 90% of an iceberg is below the surface of the water.
Iceberg orders can be absolutely hidden in the order book, where only 1/10 of the order is visible and the remaining 9/10 is hidden.

How an iceberg order works
For example, you place an order to sell / buy 1000 coins. Of these, 100 coins (1/10 part) will be visible in the orderbook to other traders, 900 coins will not be visible in the orderbook.
In this case, the order exists on the exchange in full with all 1000 coins, and until it is filled out completely, the price will not go over it.
There are both positive and negative aspects in this.
  • Positive:
Thanks to the developer, all Moonbot users reserve the same advantage over the other players on the market. It is the ability to hide any amount in the trading book (showing only 1/10 of it), in order not to create walls when buying or selling, thereby confusing other market participants.
MoonBot
Example: a sell order with the equivalent of 1.7 BTC in a half-empty order book looked like 0.17 BTC.
Market participants bought from an invisible seller until his coins ran out. Thus, a large wall with an order was not shown, which could lead to a price drop.

Negative:
  • The impossibility of high-quality scalping on coins with a price step of more than 0.08–0.1% (usually with a price under 1,300 satoshi). Due to the accumulation of a large number of participants at the same price on such coins, the question of the queue of buying / selling becomes particularly relevant. So with the iceberg mode “On”, only 10% of the order is filled, while for the other participants with the iceberg mode “Off”, the full order is filled. This happens in a such way because the exchange places 10% of the order in the order book initially, and the next 10% is set only when the previous ones are filled. Then the rest are not set up within the same queue, and go to the end after the last orderbook buyer / seller. Therefore, the greater the price step (the smaller the value of the coin) — the more buyers / sellers at the same price, and accordingly the greater the turn and the final execution of the order in iceberg mode.
Video review, which proves that even if one bot with an iceberg mode “On” opens order first, second bot with an iceberg mode “Off” off makes the deal faster.

https://preview.redd.it/whu1w4209fa31.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=2acae47f08eee2f232652d07945c03cca2cb2ce2
While one bot with the iceberg mode “On” is waiting for a buy order to be filled (each time when buy price is touched, only 10% is filled), a bot with the iceberg mode “Off” fills its orders at 100%.
Example: Imagine a situation (picture below) where you want to buy a coin at the price of 1120 sats and put up at this price your limit order of 1 BTC with iceberg mode “On”. After you have placed your order, another buyer (let’s call him buyer “X”) put his order at the same price in the queue (with iceberg mode “Off”).
The order book will show the volume of 1.1 BTC for purchase at a price of 1,120 sats. After the sale of 0.2 BTC at the price of 1120, your order will be filled for 0.1 BTC, and the next 0.1 BTC will be queued after 0.9 BTC (0.1 BTC will also be partially fulfilled) of the buyer “X”.
Until the next execution of your order will have to stand in line at 0.9 BTC.
If a third buyer appears at this time (buyer “Y”) with a volume of 0.3 BTC at the price of 1120 sats, then after another 1.2 BTC is sold at a price of 1120 satoshi (0.9 BTC — order of the buyer “X” will be filled completely, 0.1 BTC — your part of the iceberg order will be filled, 0.2 BTC — part of the order of the buyer “Y” will be filled ), the next 0.1 BTC of your order will queue for the remainder of the order (0.1 BTC) of the buyer “Y”.
And only if no one else places an order to buy at the price of 1,120 sats , your remaining 0.8 BTC volume will be completed without a queue.
https://preview.redd.it/yrk5j9azbfa31.png?width=1101&format=png&auto=webp&s=8efc4eed5457d98ba8e246301c94f16965ff9440
When iceberg mode On, your purchase order will be executed immediately in two cases only — there is no queue at your price after you or the sale at your price will be more than total volume of buy orders at this price.
  • The impossibility of the normal operation of the strategy of Moonshot for the reason above.
Partial fill of a buy order with the Moonshot strategy
  • The impossibility of normal evaluation of the order book (the search for large buy / sell orders where the price usually seeks) due to the presence of invisible walls in it — often it is not enough sats to reach the necessary price where walls are based.
Our Links
Websites
  • moon-bot.com — the official site of the MoonBot.
  • forum.moon-bot.com — MoonBot forum.
  • stat.moon-bot.com — trade statistics of the community members, TOP-50.
Topics on the BitcoinTalk Forum
  • bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2234450.0
  • bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2234198.0
Telegram Groups
  • t.me/moon_bot_crypto — the main RU-chat for communication.
  • t.me/Moon_Bot_Public — main ENG chat for communication and support.
  • t.me/MoonBotSettings — RU technical support chat.
  • t.me/moon_bot_kurilka — general RU chat.
Telegram Channel
t.me/MoonBotNews — the latest news and updates.
Social Network
www.facebook.com/MoonBotTerminal
Reproduction without attribution is prohibited.
submitted by MoonTrader_io to Moontrader_official [link] [comments]

A Beginners Guide to Bitcoin, Blockchain & Cryptocurrency

As cryptocurrency, and blockchain technology become more abundant throughout our society, it’s important to understand the inner workings of this technology, especially if you plan to use cryptocurrency as an investment vehicle. If you’re new to the crypto-sphere, learning about Bitcoin makes it much easier to understand other cryptocurrencies as many other altcoins' technologies are borrowed directly from Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is one of those things that you look into only to discover you have more questions than answers, and right as you’re starting to wrap your head around the technology; you discover the fact that Bitcoin has six other variants (forks), the amount of politics at hand, or that there are over a thousand different cryptocurrencies just as complex if not even more complex than Bitcoin.
We are currently in the infancy of blockchain technology and the effects of this technology will be as profound as the internet. This isn’t something that’s just going to fade away into history as you may have been led to believe. I believe this is something that will become an integral part of our society, eventually embedded within our technology. If you’re a crypto-newbie, be glad that you're relatively early to the industry. I hope this post will put you on the fast-track to understanding Bitcoin, blockchain, and how a large percentage of cryptocurrencies work.

Community Terminology

Altcoin: Short for alternative coin. There are over 1,000 different cryptocurrencies. You’re probably most familiar with Bitcoin. Anything that isn’t Bitcoin is generally referred to as an altcoin.
HODL: Misspelling of hold. Dank meme accidentally started by this dude. Hodlers are much more interested in long term gains rather than playing the risky game of trying to time the market.
TO THE MOON: When a cryptocurrency’s price rapidly increases. A major price spike of over 1,000% can look like it’s blasting off to the moon. Just be sure you’re wearing your seatbelt when it comes crashing down.
FUD: Fear. Uncertainty. Doubt.
FOMO: Fear of missing out.
Bull Run: Financial term used to describe a rising market.
Bear Run: Financial term used to describe a falling market.

What Is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin (BTC) is a decentralized digital currency that uses cryptography to secure and ensure validity of transactions within the network. Hence the term crypto-currency. Decentralization is a key aspect of Bitcoin. There is no CEO of Bitcoin or central authoritative government in control of the currency. The currency is ran and operated by the people, for the people. One of the main development teams behind Bitcoin is blockstream.
Bitcoin is a product of blockchain technology. Blockchain is what allows for the security and decentralization of Bitcoin. To understand Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, you must understand to some degree, blockchain. This can get extremely technical the further down the rabbit hole you go, and because this is technically a beginners guide, I’m going to try and simplify to the best of my ability and provide resources for further technical reading.

A Brief History

Bitcoin was created by Satoshi Nakamoto. The identity of Nakamoto is unknown. The idea of Bitcoin was first introduced in 2008 when Nakamoto released the Bitcoin white paper - Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Later, in January 2009, Nakamoto announced the Bitcoin software and the Bitcoin network officially began.
I should also mention that the smallest unit of a Bitcoin is called a Satoshi. 1 BTC = 100,000,000 Satoshis. When purchasing Bitcoin, you don’t actually need to purchase an entire coin. Bitcoin is divisible, so you can purchase any amount greater than 1 Satoshi (0.00000001 BTC).

What Is Blockchain?

Blockchain is a distributed ledger, a distributed collection of accounts. What is being accounted for depends on the use-case of the blockchain itself. In the case of Bitcoin, what is being accounted for is financial transactions.
The first block in a blockchain is referred to as the genesis block. A block is an aggregate of data. Blocks are also discovered through a process known as mining (more on this later). Each block is cryptographically signed by the previous block in the chain and visualizing this would look something akin to a chain of blocks, hence the term, blockchain.
For more information regarding blockchain I’ve provided more resouces below:

What is Bitcoin Mining

Bitcoin mining is one solution to the double spend problem. Bitcoin mining is how transactions are placed into blocks and added onto the blockchain. This is done to ensure proof of work, where computational power is staked in order to solve what is essentially a puzzle. If you solve the puzzle correctly, you are rewarded Bitcoin in the form of transaction fees, and the predetermined block reward. The Bitcoin given during a block reward is also the only way new Bitcoin can be introduced into the economy. With a halving event occurring roughly every 4 years, it is estimated that the last Bitcoin block will be mined in the year 2,140. (See What is Block Reward below for more info).
Mining is one of those aspects of Bitcoin that can get extremely technical and more complicated the further down the rabbit hole you go. An entire website could be created (and many have) dedicated solely to information regarding Bitcoin mining. The small paragraph above is meant to briefly expose you to the function of mining and the role it plays within the ecosystem. It doesn’t even scratch the surface regarding the topic.

How do you Purchase Bitcoin?

The most popular way to purchase Bitcoin through is through an online exchange where you trade fiat (your national currency) for Bitcoin.
Popular exchanges include:
  • Coinbase
  • Kraken
  • Cex
  • Gemini
There’s tons of different exchanges. Just make sure you find one that supports your national currency.

Volatility

Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are EXTREMELY volatile. Swings of 30% or more within a few days is not unheard of. Understand that there is always inherent risks with any investment. Cryptocurrencies especially. Only invest what you’re willing to lose.

Transaction & Network Fees

Transacting on the Bitcoin network is not free. Every purchase or transfer of Bitcoin will cost X amount of BTC depending on how congested the network is. These fees are given to miners as apart of the block reward.
Late 2017 when Bitcoin got up to $20,000USD, the average network fee was ~$50. Currently, at the time of writing this, the average network fee is $1.46. This data is available in real-time on BitInfoCharts.

Security

In this new era of money, there is no central bank or government you can go to in need of assistance. This means the responsibility of your money falls 100% into your hands. That being said, the security regarding your cryptocurrency should be impeccable. The anonymity provided by cryptocurrencies alone makes you a valuable target to hackers and scammers. Below I’ve detailed out best practices regarding securing your cryptocurrency.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Two-factor authentication is a second way of authenticating your identity upon signing in to an account. Most cryptocurrency related software/websites will offer or require some form of 2FA. Upon creation of any crypto-related account find the Security section and enable 2FA.

SMS Authentication

The most basic form of 2FA which you are probably most familiar with. This form of authentication sends a text message to your smartphone with a special code that will allow access to your account upon entry. Note that this is not the safest form of 2FA as you may still be vulnerable to what is known as a SIM swap attack. SIM swapping is a social engineering method in which an attacker will call up your phone carrier, impersonating you, in attempt to re-activate your SIM card on his/her device. Once the attacker has access to your SIM card he/she now has access to your text messages which can then be used to access your online accounts. You can prevent this by using an authenticator such as Google Authenticator.

Authenticator

The use of an authenticator is the safest form of 2FA. An authenticator is installed on a seperate device and enabling it requires you input an ever changing six digit code in order to access your account. I recommend using Google Authenticator.
If a website has the option to enable an authenticator, it will give you a QR code and secret key. Use Google Authenticator to scan the QR code. The secret key consists of a random string of numbers and letters. Write this down on a seperate sheet of paper and do not store it on a digital device.
Once Google Authenticator has been enabled, every time you sign into your account, you will have to input a six-digit code that looks similar to this. If you happen to lose or damage the device you have Google Authenticator installed on, you will be locked out of your account UNLESS you have access to the secret key (which you should have written down).

Hardware Wallets

A wallet is what you store Bitcoin and cryptocurrency on. I’ll provide resources on the different type of wallets later but I want to emphasize the use of a hardware wallet (aka cold storage).
Hardware wallets are the safest way of storing cryptocurrency because it allows for your crypto to be kept offline in a physical device. After purchasing crypto via an exchange, I recommend transferring it to cold storage. The most popular hardware wallets include the Ledger Nano S, and Trezor.
Hardware wallets come with a special key so that if it gets lost or damaged, you can recover your crypto. I recommend keeping your recovery key as well as any other sensitive information in a safety deposit box.
I know this all may seem a bit manic, but it is important you take the necessary security precautions in order to ensure the safety & longevity of your cryptocurrency.

Technical Aspects of Bitcoin

TL;DR
  • Address: What you send Bitcoin to.
  • Wallet: Where you store your Bitcoin
  • Max Supply: 21 million
  • Block Time: ~10 minutes
  • Block Size: 1-2 MB
  • Block Reward: BTC reward received from mining.

What is a Bitcoin Address?

A Bitcoin address is what you send Bitcoin to. If you want to receive Bitcoin you’d give someone your Bitcoin address. Think of a Bitcoin address as an email address for money.

What is a Bitcoin Wallet?

As the title implies, a Bitcoin wallet is anything that can store Bitcoin. There are many different types of wallets including paper wallets, software wallets and hardware wallets. It is generally advised NOT to keep cryptocurrency on an exchange, as exchanges are prone to hacks (see Mt. Gox hack).
My preferred method of storing cryptocurrency is using a hardware wallet such as the Ledger Nano S or Trezor. These allow you to keep your crypto offline in physical form and as a result, much more safe from hacks. Paper wallets also allow for this but have less functionality in my opinion.
After I make crypto purchases, I transfer it to my Ledger Nano S and keep that in a safe at home. Hardware wallets also come with a special key so that if it gets lost or damaged, you can recover your crypto. I recommend keeping your recovery key in a safety deposit box.

What is Bitcoins Max Supply?

The max supply of Bitcoin is 21 million. The only way new Bitcoins can be introduced into the economy are through block rewards which are given after successfully mining a block (more on this later).

What is Bitcoins Block Time?

The average time in which blocks are created is called block time. For Bitcoin, the block time is ~10 minutes, meaning, 10 minutes is the minimum amount of time it will take for a Bitcoin transaction to be processed. Note that transactions on the Bitcoin network can take much longer depending on how congested the network is. Having to wait a few hours or even a few days in some instances for a transaction to clear is not unheard of.
Other cryptocurrencies will have different block times. For example, Ethereum has a block time of ~15 seconds.
For more information on how block time works, Prabath Siriwardena has a good block post on this subject which can be found here.

What is Bitcoins Block Size?

There is a limit to how large blocks can be. In the early days of Bitcoin, the block size was 36MB, but in 2010 this was reduced to 1 MB in order to prevent distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS), spam, and other malicious use on the blockchain. Nowadays, blocks are routinely in excess of 1MB, with the largest to date being somewhere around 2.1 MB.
There is much debate amongst the community on whether or not to increase Bitcoin’s block size limit to account for ever-increasing network demand. A larger block size would allow for more transactions to be processed. The con argument to this is that decentralization would be at risk as mining would become more centralized. As a result of this debate, on August 1, 2017, Bitcoin underwent a hard-fork and Bitcoin Cash was created which has a block size limit of 8 MB. Note that these are two completely different blockchains and sending Bitcoin to a Bitcoin Cash wallet (or vice versa) will result in a failed transaction.
Update: As of May 15th, 2018 Bitcoin Cash underwent another hard fork and the block size has increased to 32 MB.
On the topic of Bitcoin vs Bitcoin Cash and which cryptocurrency is better, I’ll let you do your own research and make that decision for yourself. It is good to know that this is a debated topic within the community and example of the politics that manifest within the space. Now if you see community members arguing about this topic, you’ll at least have a bit of background to the issue.

What is Block Reward?

Block reward is the BTC you receive after discovering a block. Blocks are discovered through a process called mining. The only way new BTC can be added to the economy is through block rewards and the block reward is halved every 210,000 blocks (approximately every 4 years). Halving events are done to limit the supply of Bitcoin. At the inception of Bitcoin, the block reward was 50BTC. At the time of writing this, the block reward is 12.5BTC. Halving events will continue to occur until the amount of new Bitcoin introduced into the economy becomes less than 1 Satoshi. This is expected to happen around the year 2,140. All 21 million Bitcoins will have been mined. Once all Bitcoins have been mined, the block reward will only consist of transaction fees.

Technical Aspects Continued

Understanding Nodes

Straight from the Bitcoin.it wiki
Any computer that connects to the Bitcoin network is called a node. Nodes that fully verify all of the rules of Bitcoin are called full nodes.
In other words, full nodes are what verify the Bitcoin blockchain and they play a crucial role in maintaining the decentralized network. Full nodes store the entirety of the blockchain and validate transactions. Anyone can participate in the Bitcoin network and run a full node. Bitcoin.org has information on how to set up a full node. Running a full node also gives you wallet capabilities and the ability to query the blockchain.
For more information on Bitcoin nodes, see Andreas Antonopoulos’s Q&A on the role of nodes.

What is a Fork?

A fork is a divergence in a blockchain. Since Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer network, there’s an overall set of rules (protocol) in which participants within the network must abide by. These rules are put in place to form network consensus. Forks occur when implementations must be made to the blockchain or if there is disagreement amongst the network on how consensus should be achieved.

Soft Fork vs Hard Fork

The difference between soft and hard forks lies in compatibility. Soft forks are backwards compatible, hard forks are not. Think of soft forks as software upgrades to the blockchain, whereas hard forks are a software upgrade that warrant a completely new blockchain.
During a soft fork, miners and nodes upgrade their software to support new consensus rules. Nodes that do not upgrade will still accept the new blockchain.
Examples of Bitcoin soft forks include:
A hard fork can be thought of as the creation of a new blockchain that X percentage of the community decides to migrate too. During a hard fork, miners and nodes upgrade their software to support new consensus rules, Nodes that do not upgrade are invalid and cannot accept the new blockchain.
Examples of Bitcoin hard forks include:
  • Bitcoin Cash
  • Bitcoin Gold
Note that these are completely different blockchains and independent from the Bitcoin blockchain. If you try to send Bitcoin to one of these blockchains, the transaction will fail.

A Case For Bitcoin in a World of Centralization

Our current financial system is centralized, which means the ledger(s) that operate within this centralized system are subjugated to control, manipulation, fraud, and many other negative aspects that come with this system. There are also pros that come with a centralized system, such as the ability to swiftly make decisions. However, at some point, the cons outweigh the pros, and change is needed. What makes Bitcoin so special as opposed to our current financial system is that Bitcoin allows for the decentralized transfer of money. Not one person owns the Bitcoin network, everybody does. Not one person controls Bitcoin, everybody does. A decentralized system in theory removes much of the baggage that comes with a centralized system. Not to say the Bitcoin network doesn’t have its problems (wink wink it does), and there’s much debate amongst the community as to how to go about solving these issues. But even tiny steps are significant steps in the world of blockchain, and I believe Bitcoin will ultimately help to democratize our financial system, whether or not you believe it is here to stay for good.

Final Conclusions

Well that was a lot of words… Anyways I hope this guide was beneficial, especially to you crypto newbies out there. You may have come into this realm not expecting there to be an abundance of information to learn about. I know I didn’t. Bitcoin is only the tip of the iceberg, but now that you have a fundamental understanding of Bitcoin, learning about other cryptocurrencies such as Litecoin, and Ethereum will come more naturally.
Feel free to ask questions below! I’m sure either the community or myself would be happy to answer your questions.
Thanks for reading!

Related Links

Guides

Exchanges

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Welcome to Komodo. A Beginner's Guide.

Overview: the basics of the Komodo ecosystem.
 
1. Privacy: a mighty privacy coin that protects your data and rewards you 5% annually.
 
What is a privacy coin? Privacy coins implement various protocols to create a layer of privacy between blockchain transactions. This can be utilized to prevent blockchain traceability or provide different levels of privacy for data stored on the blockchain.
 
What is Jumblr? A decentralized cryptocurrency shuffler that allows your transactions to become incognito and protects them from being traced through a time or knapsack attack. It adds a privacy layer to your transactions because after your coins are Jumbled, an analysis of the amounts that went in or times that they came out is futile. This function is unique to Komodo and does not require third parties.
 
2. Security: a secure and robust consensus mechanism called delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) that protects your funds and our ecosystem. This unique technology uses a notarization process to create a backup of the entire Komodo blockchain onto the Bitcoin blockchain thereby increasing security and resilience. This happens roughly every ten minutes. The backups are then saved (notarized) onto the Bitcoin blockchain because it has the highest hashrate available. So even if Komodo suffered a devastating attack (which is extremely unlikely), the Komodo blockchain would merely revert to the most recently notarized copy of the chain. If Bitcoin loses superiority in terms of hashrate the dPOW mechanism can be switched to another blockchain on demand. Hence, Komodo is the most flexible platform to build on and one of the most secure.
 
What is hashrate? A proof of work blockchain needs a lot of calculations. Hashrate is the way it is measured. The amount of data hashed in a given time by a machine. It is a unit used to define the amount of calculations made by a machine. When you add all the machines together you have the hashrate for that blockchain (here’s a great chart that illustrates it). It's like a river of transactions and the broader and wider it is, the harder it is to manipulate it.
 
Hashrate historical chart: https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/hashrate-btc-eth-bch-ltc.html#1y.
 
3. Freedom from middlemen: a decentralized exchange (DEX) called BarterDEX, with a fully working order book, powered by our world-class atomic swap technology. This reduces risk and transaction fees. Komodo’s atomic swaps work between Bitcoin protocol and ERC20 tokens which means we can support over 95% of all the tokens and coins in existence. Our decentralized exchange offers ‘liquidity power-ups’ which mean that you can place more than one buy order with the same funds (i.e. pick your top 5 coins and if any of them drop below 50% of their value you’ll buy it and cancel the other orders at the same time) which means your funds have a greater value! On top of all that, Komodo’s DEX has fast transaction speeds and super low transaction fees (0.15%). You can find live BarterDEX and Komodo Stats here: https://dexstats.info/index.php.
 
What are atomic swaps? Atomic swaps are a method of trading cryptocurrencies peer-to-peer, directly from one blockchain to another, without the need to trust a third-party. Here is a good article to read that will take you about 11 minutes ‘Atomic Swaps & Etomic Swaps, Explained in Plain English’ written by John Westbrook on Medium.
 
Why do YOU want an exchange to be decentralized? A centralized exchange is a third party and requires you to trust them with your funds. If they’re hacked you’re at risk of losing your funds. Centralized exchanges also require you to trade between pillars (i.e. BTC or USDT) which can involve higher transaction fees and a greater number of trades than necessary to swap the token you have for the one you want (i.e. DOGE sell to BTC to buy KMD is two trades when all you really want is DOGE to KMD).
 
4. Independence: decentralized ICO crowdfunding and scalability solutions for blockchain startups.
You can think of a blockchain as a motorway and if you build a project on the same blockchain as other projects you will be impacted by how well the other drives behave, or by the motorway introducing tolls, or you could suffer from congestion (i.e. if you’re familiar with how crypto kitties caused ETH transaction fees to greatly increase and transaction speeds to slow down then you’ll understand multiple projects on one blockchain cause a scalability and independence problem ).
Komodo offers parallel chains which mean a project or decentralized ICO is given its own chain which uses Komodo’s technology. This also solves the scalability issue because using the motorway analogy we can simply open more lanes for a project with a high amount of congestion. This is possible because of the dPOW notarisation. It allows projects to launch completely independent blockchains.
Every independent blockchain created on Komodo Platform is automatically integrated into Komodo’s BarterDEX (DEX) which means they have instant access to liquidity for their token and their community can buy and trade immediately. If you compare this to a centralized exchange where projects are often met with a list of onerous demands and fees to be listed and risk being delisted then you’ll understand how important this is for any project especially smaller teams and decentralized apps (dAPPS).
 
5. Universal Wallet: the Agama Wallet is a universal secure, multi-coin wallet to store funds on and claim the 5% reward for your $KMD tokens. There is also a paper wallet available if you would prefer a cold storage option for those who want to maximize their security.
 

Read the Whitepaper

Join the Community

 

FAQs for BarterDEX

 

FAQs for Wallets

Where to buy $KMD

Mining Komodo

Thank you for reading this far. If you have any suggestions for how we can improve this guide or any questions please leave your commments below.
submitted by benohanlon to komodoplatform [link] [comments]

XMR.RU-report (NOVEMBER)

Sup-sup Monteros! :-)
Here is report from XMR.RU-team!
I want to thank you for your support and your donations. The following articles were translated into Russian and posted not only on XMR.RU but also on Bitcointalk, Forum.Bits.Media, Golos.io, Steemit, Medium and Facebook:
--
Who we are?
Group of Monero enthusiasts from Ukraine and Russia.
What are we doing?
We spread the word about Monero for the whole CIS.
You can support us, so we can translate more interesting stuff about Monero.
XMR: 42CxJrG1Q8HT9XiXJ1Cim4Sz18rM95UucEBeZ3x6YuLQUwTn6UWo9ozeA7jv13v8H1FvQn9dgw1Gw2VMUqdvVN1T9izzGEt
BTC: 1FeetSJ7LFZeC328FqPqYTfUY4LEesZ5ku
Here you can see for what all donations are spent on. ;-)

Cheers! :-)

submitted by TheFuzzStone to Monero [link] [comments]

What is GRS? A true All-in-One cryptocurrency backed by Grøstl-512 PoW algorithm

GRS is a Bitcoin-based Proof-of-Work cryptocurrency founded in March 2014 with 105M Max supply which uses Grøstl-512 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gr%C3%B8stl algorithm, a NIST hash function competition SHA-3 finalist. There are no ASICs known at the moment, and an alternative derivate of the algorithm is already developed to deploy on fork if an ASIC is ever created. It was the first cryptocurrency to implement Segregated Witness (SEGWIT) and to make a Lightning Network transaction in the mainnet.
The main features are: Instantaneous transactions, near-zero fee TXs, wallets for every platform, including iOS apple-approved wallets, all of which work flawlessly, Samourai wallets for hidden transactions and wallet funds. GRS also has the ability to make payments using SMS, without needing a mobile internet connection, and address protection, the blockchain does not accept non-valid addresses. Funds are prevented to get easily lost if a mistake is made in the address entry.
The development releases are done quarterly and is done on the 22nd of March, June, September and December. The team has a policy of never pre-announce announcements. All announcements not in the development release are announced on surprise. This has never been breached. All of what has ever been in the roadmap has been released fully and without delay. Next development released is expected to include Trezor and Ledger Hardware wallets and possibly the integration to Rootstock (RSK) smart contracts.
The coin development has never been through any kind of drama. Developers are active in the Telegram and community is pretty focused on technology and long-term real world adoption by sharing the word to merchants, as it is an Open-Source product ready for use which is gaining adoption by small merchants around the world.
The coin is currently valued at around $1.3 and has a market cap of around $94M. The circulation is now 69.9M and the main exchanges where it's traded are: Upbit (South Korea), Binance (Hong Kong, soon Malta) and Bittrex (U.S.A.).
Official Website: https://www.groestlcoin.org
Roadmap: https://www.groestlcoin.org/roadmap/
Bitcoin Announcement (ANN): https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=525926.0
Telegram: t.me/groestl
submitted by the_chilean to altcoin [link] [comments]

Coin-a-Year: Raiblocks

Howdy, folks! ♫Welcome back to the show that never ends!♫
I've decided it's high time I did a Coin-a-Year on Raiblocks. This is a special feature I do to recycle old material revisit past coins I've covered of special note a year or more later. I originally posted my Coin-a-Day feature about Raiblocks on this subreddit March 7th, 2016; it didn't get much attention then, but I have a strange feeling people might be slightly interested to see the difference now.
Below is the original report. I'll strike out what is wrong now, and add [bracketed notes] for updated commentary.
I'm no expert on the current state of Rai by any means. I'd honestly thought the coin was dead later in 2016; just didn't check back into it. And now here we are.
Bias note: I got a significant bit of Rai from the original faucet. I have sold a fraction of that this year but still have a lot of it. I'm biased both by holding it and from selling it.
Hello, y'all! I saw a comment pointing to this coin as being designed for free transactions, which is a core interest to me, so I decided to look into it a little bit and do a write-up. Enjoy!
Summary
Today's coin is Raiblocks (RAIXRB), which are designed to support free transactions and no block rewards. The coins will be initially distributed by a CAPTCHA controlled faucet with an annual halving rate.
[Faucet now closed.]
Initial creation: October 15th, 2015 [1]
Coin supply: 4.8 x 1012 rai current supply in circulation; 3.4 x 1014 rai maximum supply [2]
[XRB is the new standard base unit which was Mrai before (and still I suppose). Also, supply is distributed. So we now have about 133 million XRB as the outstanding and max supply.]
All-time high: Not yet traded as far as I know. [3]
[About $37.5 or 0.0028 per CMC max so far, about two days ago]
Current price: Not yet traded as far as I know. [3]
[Depending on the exchange and moment, somewhere around $30-35 currently or about 0.002-0.0022 BTC]
Current market cap: Not yet traded as far as I know. [3]
[Somewhere around $4 billion]
Block rate (average): Unlimited [4]
Transaction rate: ? [5]
[I'm too lazy to find this right now. Maybe someone will chime in with it in the comments.]
Transaction limit (currently): None [6]
Transaction cost: Free [7]
Rich list: ? [8]
[https://raiblocks.net/page/frontiers.php - Top 100 own ~63%]
Exchanges: None yet. [3]
[Bitgrail and Mercatox have been the two main. Kucoin just added it and Binance has it in its voting which is ending shortly.]
Processing method: Proof-of-stake [9]
[Above refers I believe to dispute resolution (double spend). There's also a minor PoW for send/receive.]
Distribution method: Faucet [10]
Community: New-born [11]
[Fairly strong and growing. Good memes. Slightly drunk on euphoria currently.]
Code/development: Active development at https://github.com/clemahieu/raiblocks
Leadership: Colin LeMahieu
Innovation or special feature: Protocol designed without a limited throughput or block rate, as well as not supporting block rewards nor transaction fees.
Description
Raiblocks is, as far as I know, the first cryptocurrency designed from its start to not support any block reward or transaction fee. In addition, it has no block size or rate limit. Further, all coins will be initially distributed through a captcha-controlled faucet on the main site. It's a bold attempt, going against the conventional wisdom of what is possible.
Edit: I should mention a couple things. First, there is a PoW attached to transactions as an anti-spam defense. This PoW can be attached by the recipient rather than the sender as well, which means that large automated sends could be done without the PoW if needed and the recipient could attach that.
Also, the natural question coming from how all the rest of the cryptocurrencies work is "how does it work without an incentive to run a node?" The idea presented in the whitepaper is basically that operating a cryptocurrency has a lot of expenses, and most of them are paid "out-of-band", so why not have funding nodes be that way too? It leaves it open to whatever other incentives there may be, of which the most obvious are first: that there are only full nodes so far, so if one wants to use the coin, then one is going to run a node. More long-term, even after SPV, presumably large holders might choose to operate one regardless. Someday, if merchants accept it, they would presumably run one. And enthusiasts. It sounds very tenuous, and this is why this is such an audacious attempt in my opinion.
After six months running, the number I heard for the blockchain size was about 20 MB, which is insanely small, but the coin has gotten so little attention that I suspect there hasn't been significant load yet. I'm very curious to see how it will perform under load. I think its design actually makes it more efficient when there aren't transactions, because nothing is added to the blockchain (actually termed block lattice here, but using blockchain generically to refer to any cryptocurrency's core data), unlike in the conventional / Bitcoin model where blocks are being generated whether or not there are transactions in them. Of course that doesn't matter much when there are tons of transactions, as on Bitcoin currently, but, for instance, in Nyancoin, we accumulate tons of empty blocks all the time, where Raiblocks would just wait for more transactions. However, again, under load perhaps it could start growing "too quickly" by some metric, or eventually reach the point where it starts losing users because of the requirements of running a full node.
I think it will be very interesting to see how this turns out in practice.
[And it's certainly going to be interesting to see how it goes. So far, it's still working. Which is better than I'd hoped or expected.]
Community
The coin is relatively young but even for a young coin it's not a huge community. But there is clear discussion and interest both on BCT and on their Google Group. It looks like a healthy start to me.
[As per my comment above: Fairly strong and growing. Good memes. Slightly drunk on euphoria currently. Seems well-intentioned generally: looking to try to have some caution mixed in and putting up a bug bounty and that sort of thing. Still has a little bit of some of the common negative characteristics in crypto communities but this may be due to growth from outside communities overwhelming the local culture temporarily more than anything.]
Footnotes
[1] https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1208830.0 - Initial announcement, didn't get much attention apparently. Also, this thread mentions a built-in block-explorer with a rich list. I don't have a working client to access this at the moment but that's pretty cool.
[2] There are 2128 total units, and a rai is 1024 total units, so total supply should be about 3.4 x 1014. https://github.com/clemahieu/raiblocks/wiki/Distribution-and-Mining Distribution has been going since about November 2015, so I would expect about one-third of the initial 50% to be distributed. The block explorer seems pretty primitive; it just takes a hash. No overall stats. So I'll use that one-third of the initial 50% estimate. So about 5.7 x 1013. Note by comparison that the faucet gives 108 coins at a time currently.
Actually, this comment puts the amount of rai in circulation as 4,763,023...that can't be right, that many Mrai I think? Yeah, 1030 stated as divider there. So 4.8 x 1012 rai in current circulation.
[3] https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/raiblocks/PSbX_onjLfU - This topic discusses it a bit. Also comments from meor in this thread
However, I have also paid 100 NYAN for 100 Mrai. This is basically a test transaction, but 1 NYAN for 1 Mrai (106 rai) would imply a marketcap of 4.8 million NYAN, or about 0.34 BTC in current circulation. I had initially thought this was higher before recalculating with the actual amount circulating as per [2]; may also have screwed up the math initially or here.
[4] https://docs.google.com/document/d/13s6BKzRq9oD5Me55JBRzR7BdvjJ44QKqPu2lf-JsAlU/edit - whitepaper ; each transaction could be thought of as its own block if I am grokking this right. It goes through as fast as the network can handle it. There is no fixed interval or period.
[5] I believe https://raiblocks.net/#/block-explorer is the only block explorer so far and it only supports entering a hash, so I don't have a way to determine the transactions in the last 24 hours.
[6] https://docs.google.com/document/d/13s6BKzRq9oD5Me55JBRzR7BdvjJ44QKqPu2lf-JsAlU/edit - The protocol is designed without a limit if I understand correctly.
[7] https://docs.google.com/document/d/13s6BKzRq9oD5Me55JBRzR7BdvjJ44QKqPu2lf-JsAlU/edit - The protocol is designed without transaction fees or block rewards.
[8] As per [5], the block explorer does not support this. There area couple addresses known to be the initial generation which will go into the faucet, but beyond that I don't know the distribution. There's supposed to be a rich list available in the built-in explorer, but I was unable to get a client running on my out-of-date systems (32-bit Windows (64-bit Windows client only), and CentOS 6 (glibc too old)).
[9] In general all full nodes are maintaining their own copies of all the information, but as I understand it the dispute resolution is based on voting by ownership of rai.
[10] All rai will be distributed through https://raiblocks.net/#/start as per https://github.com/clemahieu/raiblocks/wiki/Distribution-and-Mining
[11] There's been some discussion on BCT as well as on the google group: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/raiblocks ; there's a new subreddit /raiblocks, but it's still set on private for some reason at the time of writing this footnote (just wrote a comment to meor noting this).
Further reading
https://raiblocks.net - Main site
https://github.com/clemahieu/raiblocks - Repo with documentation on the github wiki.
https://docs.google.com/document/d/13s6BKzRq9oD5Me55JBRzR7BdvjJ44QKqPu2lf-JsAlU/edit - whitepaper
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/raiblocks - Google group
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1219264.0 - Block lattice discussion
Disclosure, disclaimer
Disclosure: I have made an agreement to purchase 100 Mrai and have paid 100 NYAN for this. I have no other financial interest in Raiblocks currently, but I do intend to get a client ultimately (my current OSes are incompatible from being too old (one is 32-bit Windows; other CentOS 6 with too old glibc)) and get free coins from the faucet and play with this more.
Disclaimer: This writing is intended for edutainmental purposes only. Any accurate information conveyed is purely incidental. No warranty of fitness for any fit purposes is implied. This column known to the State of California to cause cancer. Cave canum. Carpe carp. Caveat lector.
Up next:
Tell me what coin to write about next by sponsoring an article! A sponsored article would likely have more discussion than I did here, and less than my Coin-a-Year report on Nyancoin.
Edit: /RaiBlocks is now public! New subreddit, but hopefully it'll build up a bit over time. :-)
Edit 2: Added more than the stub discussion discussion section I'd initially done.
Okay, so those last links are generally outdated and old information and I stopped commenting through all that. Go to https://raiblocks.net/ and/or /raiblocks if you want to learn more. :-)
Again, I'm heavily biased from having gotten incredibly fortunate from this price rise and having been fortunate enough to have been introduced to the coin early on. I'm not giving trading advice. The market is crazy but I have no idea if it'll go up, down, sideways, or loop-de-loop.
Have fun and stay safe!
submitted by coinaday to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Atomic Swap with USDT: Swap Online solution in two hundred lines of code

Atomic Swap with USDT: Swap Online solution in two hundred lines of code
https://preview.redd.it/3mx7amtio9g11.png?width=696&format=png&auto=webp&s=f2bd956843196fa2f51048a86f9608b6e714f62e
On the eve of the release on the mainnet, the team of the cross-chain wallet Swap Online is publishing a research study and the code of the atomic swapusing USDT.

USD Tether — the equivalent of the dollar on Omni Layer

The solution described above with the protocol “over” the Bitcoin network gave life to one of the most controversial cryptocurrency projects of the last two years — Tether. Tether (symbol Tether — ₮, ticker — USDT) is a hybrid cryptocurrency with a rate binding to one US dollar. Moreover, according to the assurances of Tether Limited, the issuer of the given tokens, the “binding” is to be understood literally, as each purchased token of USDT corresponds to one US dollar available at the disposal of the company.
If we take the three largest exchanges based on their daily turnover of transactions at the time of writing (Binance, OKEx and HuObi), and then track the five most popular trading pairs for each, we will encounter USDT in 13 out of 15 cases.

USDT — the token with the largest capitalization in the world.

All this generates great community interest in faster, safer and cheaper solutions for exchanging Tether into other currencies. Obviously, such a solution could be atomic swaps, which are instant, decentralized cross-chain exchanges. The Komodo laboratory, the main headliners of this technology, who presented it in the autumn of 2017, reported on the successful exchange of KMD to USDT carried out on the BarterDEX platform, Komodo’s own exchanger.
https://preview.redd.it/z7tx3cv0p9g11.png?width=597&format=png&auto=webp&s=f0944434f691d69ae45c5b80e00fed2736423f7a
At the same time, according to our data, the developers of Komodo made a swap on the ERC20-a version of Tether, which is only available in 3% of cases. Approximately 60 million USDT from global turnover can thus be exchanged using this method, which, obviously, cannot be considered as a solution to the problem. Striking examples of imperfections of existing solutions can be found even on Etherscan.
https://preview.redd.it/39nc2ji6p9g11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=992a4adc022175d90d111f030047ba8adeda14f8
This fall, the team of Swap Online is ready to present an atomic swap with Tether. And here’s how we did it.

How Omni conducts transactions

To carry out the Omni transaction, a user needs to create a regular Bitcoin transaction-transfer of 546 satoshi (minimum) with an additional output storing payload using the OP_RETURN op-code. An example of such a transaction. The payload is a mandatory part of any Omni transaction, as it is a sequence of bytes containing all the necessary information about the transaction.

Let us consider what information is stored in the payload itself

transaction marker — 4 bytes, the mandatory part of any Omni payload is always equal to 0x6f6d6e69 — ASCII code omni. If the first 4 bytes of the sequence are not equal to 0x6f6d6e69, then this sequence is not a payload of Omni.
version — 2 bytes, an analog version of the transaction in Bitcoin. For the described algorithm to work, version 0 is used, or that is the same as 0x0000.
transaction type — 2 bytes, transaction type, for an atomic swap it is sufficient to use only “Simple send” transactions, as simple send is the usual sending of omni currency from its address to the address of the recipient. Simple send corresponds to the transaction type code 0, that is, the next 2 bytes 0x0000. Other possible types of transactions exist in Omni.
token identifier — 4 bytes, identifier of the currency used. For example TetherUS has the identifier 31 or 0x0000001f. All tokens created by the Omni protocol at this time can be seen via the following link.
amount — 8 bytes, for a transaction of type Simple send, this is the amount of the sent currency.
As you can see, payload does not store the addresses of senders and recipients of the transactions, these addresses are determined by the Bitcoin transaction in which the payload output was detected. By scanning inputs, the Omni protocol determines who makes the transfer by finding the output of the corresponding address from among the inputs of the transaction p2pkh.
Thus, for a transfer from Alice to Bob of, for example, 50,000,000 TetherUS, we need to create a Bitcoin transaction where one of the inputs will refer to the p2pkh output corresponding to the Alice address. It is also important that this entry be the first in this transaction (the index of this entry in the received transaction would be is minimal or none at all). One of the outputs of this transaction should be the output of p2pkh to Bob’s address, and another output must have been one of the outputs with the following payload:
https://preview.redd.it/0kmuzds8p9g11.png?width=575&format=png&auto=webp&s=af2f496596684af18091fb044f4e20b7e546c32f
Example 1
Example 2

Atomic Swap on Omni Layer

Suppose that Alice and Bob are willing to make an inter-blockchain exchange of cryptocurrencies. Alice wants to exchange the units of any Omni currency, for example TetherUS (the given currency has the currency identifier # 31 in the Mainnet, then in the text we will only talk about this currency of the Omni protocol, since it is the most popular at the moment, but the algorithm below will work for any currency of the Omni protocol as well) for b units of a cryptocurrency working on another blockchain. (Omni works on top of the Bitcoin blockchain, of course, according to the algorithm below it is possible to exchange TetherUS for Bitcoins, but due to their work on one and the same blockchain, this exchange can be done in a different, more efficient way).

Glossary

A — blockchain of Bitcoin.
B — the blockchain of the cryptocurrency for which TetherUS is being exchanged.
a — the sum of TetherUS, which Alice wants to exchange.
b — the sum of the cryptocurrency of the adjoining blockchain B, to which Alice wants to exchange her a TetherUS.

Creating a Transaction

1) Bob generates a random value secret.
2) Bob calculates the secretHash by performing the following operation: secretHash = RIPEMD160 (secret)
3) Bob creates and sends an htlc transaction sealed by secretHash
4) Bob sends Alice a secretHash value, and a hash of the hrlc transaction he created in the previous paragraph in order for Alice to make sure that the correct htlc transaction is actually present in the B blockchain.
5) Alice received from Bob the secretHash and hash of the htlc-transaction Bob created, and is convinced that such a transaction is really present in the B blockchain, and that this is indeed a htlc-transaction sealed by the secretHash value.
6) using the received secretHash, Alice creates the following transaction and translates it into the Bitcoin blockchain:
https://preview.redd.it/oxri5a7gp9g11.png?width=735&format=png&auto=webp&s=14e88db4fc4d1743406939343d42e33352b05782
Let us call such a transaction financing_tx. In fact, it is almost an ordinary Bitcoin htlc transaction that is used in atomic swap with the only difference that in the amount field, 546 satoshi is the minimum number of Bitcoins that can be at the output of the transaction, below this value, Bitcoin counts the transaction as dust and does not conduct it.
7) Alice creates a transaction according to the following scheme:
https://preview.redd.it/awz9uzuhp9g11.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=9ca79e77ca6aff631a39ae95dfaa70aa06d695ec
Let us call this transaction redeem_tx. Alice creates such a transaction with two inputs: the first is the input referencing the output of funding_tx, which contains the htlc script. Alice does not sign this script, that is, the SigScript field remains completely empty. The second input is the input referring to any unspent exits of Alice, the main condition is that at this output stage there are enough Bitcoins to pay the transaction fee, and this entry is signed by Alice with her private key with the signature type SIGHASH_ALL (that is, she signs the entire transaction except for SigScript fields on the inputs transaction, which makes this transaction immutable. The outputs of the same transaction are the elementary Simple Send and a TetherUS from Alice to Bob (details of what Simple Send, payload is and how it works can be found in another section).
8) Alice sends Bob the redeem_tx created in the previous paragraph and the one she signed herself.
9) Bob got the redeem_tx sent by Alice, checks it, just looks through the inputs and outputs, making sure that this is really a transaction that Alice should have created using the real algorithm. After that, Bob signs the transaction with his private key and provides the secret value in the SigScript of the corresponding redeem_tx entry.
10) Bob sends the signed redeem_tx transaction to the blockchain, thereby transferring the TetherUS currency from Alice to himself. Note — before carrying out this step, we still need to check that Alice’s address has the necessary amount of TetherUS.
11) Alice looks through blockchain A and gets the value secret and uses it in the B blockchain to transfer the funds using the htlc transaction Bob created in point 3. The exchange ends here.
Stating the obvious: naturally the timelock value used by Bob when creating the htlc-transaction must be significantly longer than the timelock that Alice uses, since her htlc transaction should be spent earlier than the htlc created by Bob. This is necessary so that Bob cannot manage to spend both htlc.

Conclusion

Thus, connecting Omni Layer to Swap Online allows users to cover transactions.

Full research you may find in our Github

C++ source code for creating TX
C++ source code for redeem TX

Swap.Online Essential Links

Website: https://testnet.swap.online GitHub: https://github.com/swaponline Email: [email protected] Telegram: https://t.me/swaponline Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Swaponline Twitter: https://twitter.com/SwapOnlineTeam Wiki: https://wiki.swap.online/ Bitcointalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4636633
submitted by noxonsu to SwapOnline [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: Bitcoin posts from 2018-10-09 to 2018-10-16 19:41 PDT

Period: 7.10 days
Submissions Comments
Total 765 10226
Rate (per day) 107.80 1494.28
Unique Redditors 596 3440
Combined Score 31658 33963

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 4526 points, 1 submission: Alexsayzz
    1. Anti-crypto propaganda... promoted by American Express (4526 points, 513 comments)
  2. 2391 points, 2 submissions: MoonMan_666
    1. Someone just paid $0.10 to move $194M (29,999 BTC). Think about how powerful that is for a second. (2369 points, 380 comments)
    2. Dev sends Bitcoin without using the web or the power grid (22 points, 4 comments)
  3. 2077 points, 1 submission: _Logicrypto
    1. When your boss thanks you for staying late at work but you were just watching the Bitcoin price and lost track of time (2077 points, 69 comments)
  4. 1496 points, 1 submission: bitbug42
    1. ⚡Lightning Network at the Senate - Counterargument to Roubini's speech that Bitcoin can never scale to serve the planet (1496 points, 186 comments)
  5. 1417 points, 1 submission: opencoins
    1. Why sell and pay capital gains, why not wait for mass adoption? That's my motto. (1417 points, 244 comments)
  6. 1174 points, 1 submission: awertheim
    1. Took a while but finally part of the picture club (had to wait on the web browser update!) (1174 points, 127 comments)
  7. 853 points, 1 submission: Hodl_it
    1. Feeling good? (853 points, 215 comments)
  8. 833 points, 1 submission: cointastical
    1. Bitcoin ATM operator gets the $62,500 that police confiscated back (833 points, 110 comments)
  9. 802 points, 2 submissions: JandyJammer
    1. Congratulations US senators for understanding crypto better than this guy (748 points, 125 comments)
    2. How is Bitmex the biggest exchange... total joke. I hope their competitors crush them. (54 points, 49 comments)
  10. 704 points, 1 submission: lesbiansareoverrated
    1. ...in case you missed the laura shill burn today (704 points, 100 comments)
  11. 512 points, 5 submissions: castorfromtheva
    1. Mycelium wallet will FINALLY get segwit! "This month" as stated by Mycelium developers on 9 October 2018. Glad to hear! I am excited. (312 points, 136 comments)
    2. Just saw it on their website: Ledger Nano S 20% off, directly from manufacturer! For six days, starting today. Just in case you consider getting a hardware wallet. (146 points, 84 comments)
    3. Newsflash: Bitfinex Unveils ‘Distributed Banking Solution,’ Resumes Fiat Deposits (44 points, 8 comments)
    4. Binance Uganda Launch 80% Ready As Users Can Now Sign Up: Deposits & Trading Coming Soon (8 points, 1 comment)
    5. Article: "Cryptos at a turning point", trustnodes.com (2 points, 0 comments)
  12. 510 points, 4 submissions: eddieweng
    1. Someone moved 12,220 BTC ($82M) in block 545,877 (393 points, 180 comments)
    2. Someone moved 22,200 BTC ($139M) in block 545,243 (90 points, 38 comments)
    3. CoinMarketBull – CoinMarketCap, but with a different metric (26 points, 4 comments)
    4. holdernews - trending stories on bitcointalk (1 point, 0 comments)
  13. 387 points, 1 submission: StoneHammers
    1. We are three months away from Bitcoins 10 year anniversary. (387 points, 39 comments)
  14. 366 points, 3 submissions: TrackCoinMarket-com
    1. Citizens of Venezuela have turned to Bitcoin and gold farming in online games to survive the country’s economic collapse. (365 points, 60 comments)
    2. Zambian Central Bank Declares Bitcoin Is Not Legal Tender (1 point, 7 comments)
    3. Bitcoin is Maturing, Crypto Growth Surprisingly Positive Reveals Study (0 points, 3 comments)
  15. 358 points, 1 submission: musicfan39
    1. Bitcoin all-time price graph (Aug 2010 – Oct 2018) (358 points, 84 comments)
  16. 311 points, 5 submissions: TheGreatMuffin
    1. Bitfinex' statement on fiat deposits/withdrawals (tldr: fiat and crypto withdrawals working, fiat deposits temporarily paused) (103 points, 52 comments)
    2. Bitfinex suspends all fiat deposits, “expects the situation to normalize within a week” (78 points, 62 comments)
    3. Fidelity gives a nod to OG cypherpunks (mentioning Adam Back, Nick Szabo, David Chaum) and bitcoin's precursors in their newest blog post (78 points, 0 comments)
    4. full video of the US Senate hearing on cryptocurrency: with P. Van Valkenburgh and N. Roubini as witnesses (starts at minute 16) (31 points, 5 comments)
    5. Interview with one of the creators of the Samourai wallet (21 points, 1 comment)
  17. 305 points, 1 submission: 6maud
    1. Jamie Dimon: Bitcoin is a scam. Also Jamie Dimon: Let's file 20 blockchain patents so we don't miss out on this blockchain thing. facepalm (305 points, 93 comments)
  18. 274 points, 2 submissions: undertheradar48
    1. $6.9 trillion of assets just got access to the world of crypto! (169 points, 24 comments)
    2. 1.65 Million people are attending over 5,000 Bitcoin meetups around the world. Organic interest/curiosity is real! (105 points, 41 comments)
  19. 265 points, 1 submission: NoGooderr
    1. Shorters, are you okay? (265 points, 123 comments)
  20. 253 points, 5 submissions: _smudger_
    1. Bakkt CEO: We're About To See A Cryptocurrency Revolution (130 points, 29 comments)
    2. Our team, launch and advocacy – Bakkt Blog – Medium (104 points, 33 comments)
    3. Coinbase's Adam White is joining Bakkt as its COO - The Block (16 points, 1 comment)
    4. The Bright Side of the 2018 Bitcoin Bear Market – Wes Carlson – Medium (2 points, 0 comments)
    5. Analysis: ErisX & Bakkt Are All in on the Battle for Institutional Cash (1 point, 0 comments)
  21. 247 points, 1 submission: Fly115
    1. It would be impossible for every Fidelity brokerage customer to own even one Bitcoin. This is why Bitcoins are worth thousands of dollars, while a dollar is only worth one dollar (and only until next year when when it's worth 97 cents). - Erik Voorhees (247 points, 129 comments)
  22. 237 points, 1 submission: manfromnantucket1984
    1. Bear markets are for building! 🐻⚡ While the price is doing what it does, we continue to build the #LightningNetwork at the #LightningHackdayNYC in New York on October 27th/28th 2018. Speakers like Christian Decker, Matt Corallo and Peter Todd will take you down the rabbit hole. (237 points, 15 comments)
  23. 232 points, 1 submission: TheMidnightMatinee
    1. Guys lets rally and show your support for an BTC ETF! Here's why! (232 points, 63 comments)
  24. 231 points, 2 submissions: installeris
    1. Fidelity just made it easier for hedge funds and other pros to invest in cryptocurrencies (169 points, 36 comments)
    2. Nouriel Roubini has always been talking sh*t about Bitcoin. And he's always wrong. (62 points, 29 comments)
  25. 226 points, 1 submission: lewtr
    1. An easter egg in the Bitcoin genesis block code (226 points, 40 comments)
  26. 218 points, 1 submission: Unusual_Mountain
    1. Bitcoin as a safe haven from monetary policy can help keep governments and banks honest. It doesn't have to replace them. (218 points, 85 comments)
  27. 214 points, 1 submission: Mobilenewsflash
    1. Roubini (214 points, 50 comments)
  28. 212 points, 1 submission: CardCollector1
    1. Getting Started with BTCPay Server - Free and Open Source Bitcoin and Lightning Network payment processor (212 points, 75 comments)
  29. 201 points, 1 submission: yonstonston
    1. Sorry guys, i bought BTC yesterday... (201 points, 72 comments)
  30. 161 points, 2 submissions: linzex
    1. A Bitcoin Lesson From A Yogi Master (93 points, 6 comments)
    2. ChangeNow Exchange Accused of $70,000 Theft (68 points, 8 comments)
  31. 159 points, 3 submissions: zappadoing
    1. greetings from holidays - I thought I won't have to read anything about bitcoin this time... (130 points, 12 comments)
    2. Telegram down! Lots of Bitcoin-Groups not accessible. We need something decentralized. (19 points, 26 comments)
    3. Colleges Are Baffled by Bitcoin Donations (10 points, 0 comments)
  32. 159 points, 1 submission: Crevative
    1. Zimbabwe spirals into economic chaos as fears of another round of hyperinflation begin to spark - another fiat currency fails! (159 points, 20 comments)
  33. 147 points, 1 submission: lexihayes99
    1. Just wanted to remind people of a simpler time :) (147 points, 196 comments)
  34. 146 points, 1 submission: Rare_Ad
    1. Bitcoin was a tool that was born of the economic crisis some 10 years ago, does that mean another big recession or banking collapse could catapult it forward? (146 points, 87 comments)
  35. 146 points, 1 submission: vmrey
    1. Buda, the largest crypto exchange by volume in Chile, is one of the first to incorporate Lightning network. (146 points, 14 comments)
  36. 145 points, 1 submission: wwwdata
    1. I own crypto but not Bitcoin. (145 points, 243 comments)
  37. 141 points, 9 submissions: expertbit
    1. This E-Bike Accepts Payments With Bitcoin's Lightning Network (51 points, 3 comments)
    2. Bitcoin [BTC] transfers will become a lot faster with Liquid Network, says Jimmy Song (37 points, 58 comments)
    3. Top Universities Are Now Investing in Cryptocurrency Funds (18 points, 0 comments)
    4. Indian Exchange Unocoin Could Launch Crypto ATMs (17 points, 0 comments)
    5. Bitcoin Price Stability -- A Bullish Or Bearish Sign? (15 points, 1 comment)
    6. Don’t Underestimate China’s Power In Bitcoin (2 points, 3 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Price Analysis: Bulls Defend Yearly Support Amidst Wall Street Slump (1 point, 0 comments)
    8. Bitcoin Network Comes To A Standstill In China (0 points, 2 comments)
    9. Bitcoin Price Jumps by $600 to Reach One-Month High Above $6.9k (0 points, 0 comments)
  38. 137 points, 1 submission: diditmakesound
    1. Everyone still buying right now (137 points, 30 comments)
  39. 135 points, 1 submission: gattacibus
    1. POLONIEX suspends Bitcoin withdrawals (135 points, 86 comments)
  40. 129 points, 3 submissions: nopara73
    1. Wasabi Wallet added OSX support. Please consider testing it. (55 points, 25 comments)
    2. Scoring Bitcoin Wallets (38 points, 25 comments)
    3. A Technical Overview of Wasabi Wallet, Future Ideas, Plans and Strategy (36 points, 1 comment)
  41. 123 points, 1 submission: Big_Bluefin
    1. Live from Fremont Street in Las Vegas (123 points, 20 comments)
  42. 121 points, 1 submission: agustinf
    1. Latin American Exchange Buda.com adds Lightning Network payments for all. (121 points, 17 comments)
  43. 118 points, 2 submissions: TheCrunk1
    1. Fidelity launches new company for trading, storing cryptocurrencies (98 points, 26 comments)
    2. Binance launches fiat-to-crypto exchange in Uganda (20 points, 7 comments)
  44. 112 points, 1 submission: Thinkmoreaboutit
    1. "Over the weekend I sent a bitcoin transaction to a relay 12.6km away with no cell network or internet connection. Here's a tweetstorm about how I used @gotenna and @SamouraiWallet to do it" [email protected] (112 points, 20 comments)
  45. 111 points, 1 submission: Jackieknows
    1. When it comes to your coins, keep it quiet. – Trezor Blog (111 points, 10 comments)
  46. 110 points, 1 submission: 100ravp
    1. Someone solved the 310.00 BTC challenge (110 points, 87 comments)
  47. 110 points, 1 submission: loulan
    1. There was an attempt (110 points, 78 comments)
  48. 106 points, 1 submission: king-only
    1. Breez, a Lightning Network mobile client, is now fully open sourced (106 points, 19 comments)
  49. 101 points, 2 submissions: HodlingToTheMoon
    1. Websites using Joomla (second most popular platform after Wordpress), can now be enabled with Bitcoin payments - In less than 5 min! (98 points, 5 comments)
    2. Got business on your mind? Here are 7 easy and genuine ideas to start a Bitcoin-centric e-commerce store! (3 points, 0 comments)
  50. 98 points, 1 submission: ubunt2
    1. Fidelity Starts Crypto Unit to Serve Wall Street Customers (98 points, 4 comments)
  51. 97 points, 1 submission: CosmicHemorroid
    1. Lightning Powered E-bike #Reckless (97 points, 22 comments)
  52. 96 points, 3 submissions: DesignerAccount
    1. Bitcoin is all grown up! (83 points, 6 comments)
    2. [Bitcoin OpSec - Keep your coins safe] Detailed breakdown of sophisticated scam (12 points, 6 comments)
    3. Infographic - How do UTXOs work? (1 point, 0 comments)
  53. 96 points, 1 submission: bowlingfries
    1. Bitcoin kiosk in Portland OR weed dispensary (96 points, 21 comments)
  54. 94 points, 1 submission: nassimmontreal
    1. #roubinilovescrypto (94 points, 37 comments)
  55. 92 points, 2 submissions: ella11price
    1. Selling goods and items for Bitcoin should be easy. I built a marketplace similar to eBay so people can sell anything for crypto. This video explains it. (91 points, 63 comments)
    2. The best ways to earn bitcoin and cryptocurrency. Includes how to spot a scam (1 point, 0 comments)
  56. 91 points, 1 submission: ytcoinartist
    1. The Golden Pineapple, a 3D combination puzzle for all ages and free to play. Be the first to solve the final level and win 1 BTC, courtesy of The Pineapple Fund. http://pineapplearcade.net/arcade-game/pineapple (91 points, 25 comments)
  57. 89 points, 1 submission: Rachsuchtig
    1. An BTC ATM at Austria/Salzburg Shopping Arena, totally surprised to see (89 points, 11 comments)
  58. 87 points, 2 submissions: Ishan1121
    1. Bitcoin proves once again its the best way to transfer money! $194 million transferred for 10 cents. (87 points, 18 comments)
    2. Discussion: So Bitcoin rises as fake news on Binance delisting Tether (USDT) goes viral...removing Tether completley will affect the market positively? THoughts? (0 points, 6 comments)
  59. 87 points, 1 submission: Blixx87
    1. I finally figured it out! We have been forming a Dorito Pattern and it’s on it’s way to the cheese dip. (87 points, 49 comments)
  60. 86 points, 8 submissions: EffigyBoy
    1. Venezuelans Play RuneScape To Make Small Profit In Bitcoin (31 points, 4 comments)
    2. CFTC Chair On Bitcoin Expansion: "We Are Seeing More Institutional Movement Into This Area" (26 points, 0 comments)
    3. The Indian Government is Considering to Launch Its Own Cryptocurrency to Avoid Citizens Using Bitcoin (13 points, 14 comments)
    4. The Congress Is Groping In The Dark To Handle Cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin has come into the mainstream. (6 points, 0 comments)
    5. After Stock Markets Plunge Cryptocurrency Whale Dumps over 22 100 BTC (5 points, 11 comments)
    6. Scientific Journal 'Chaos' Favors Bitcoin – As stable as Oil and Dollar Markets (2 points, 1 comment)
    7. The First Physical Cryptocurrency Store in The U.S. Launches on October 20 (2 points, 1 comment)
    8. Omniex and Gemini Struck A Partnership to Support Institutional Investors (1 point, 0 comments)
  61. 85 points, 2 submissions: jakesonwu
    1. Release - Eclair v0.2-beta7 - Compatible with Bitcoin Core 0.17.0 (75 points, 8 comments)
    2. Lord Keynes Would Be Proud (10 points, 1 comment)
  62. 84 points, 2 submissions: renepickhardt
    1. ECDSA is not that bad: two-party signing without Schnorr or BLS (by Stepan Snigirev) (53 points, 7 comments)
    2. Last week in Lightning Network: A weekly collection of lightning network (and related) news on Twitter (31 points, 6 comments)
  63. 83 points, 3 submissions: OldCarpet54
    1. [GIVEAWAY] Crypto Invest Summit – Wozniak, Gupta, Morehead (82 points, 1 comment)
    2. blockchain news: from SF Blockchain Week and XBlockchain (1 point, 0 comments)
    3. Buterin | SpankChain | Kambria: San Francisco Blockchain Week (0 points, 0 comments)
  64. 83 points, 1 submission: -elektro-pionir-
    1. AMA with Bitcoin engineer Jameson Lopp (83 points, 21 comments)
  65. 80 points, 3 submissions: ysangkok
    1. Bitcoin script discussion at Scaling Bitcoin: "Sporks are probabilistic soft-forks [...] where instead of [...] version bits if the blockhash has some [...] PoW below some threshold, it activates. [...] [E.g.] you have an expectation of 6 months to get your shit together. Doing it live." (28 points, 3 comments)
    2. Multi-Hop Locks for Secure, Privacy-Preserving and Interoperable Payment-Channel Networks (27 points, 8 comments)
    3. Scaling Bitcoin Kaizen - Scriptless scripts, adaptor signatures and their applications (25 points, 2 comments)
  66. 78 points, 3 submissions: mkuraja
    1. What's the difference between Lightning Network and Liquid Network? (57 points, 41 comments)
    2. Need some fresh, new FOMO in your life? Reenter, Trace Mayer. (15 points, 1 comment)
    3. This American tourist thought I'd see "Bitcoin Accepted Here" all over Tokyo, Japan but not one place found yet. (6 points, 17 comments)
  67. 77 points, 1 submission: Miladran
    1. Fidelity Says It Will Trade Bitcoin for Hedge Funds (77 points, 1 comment)
  68. 77 points, 1 submission: pandaman200
    1. Swiss Crypto Fund Obtains Country’s First Crypto Asset Management License (77 points, 4 comments)
  69. 75 points, 3 submissions: mickhick95
    1. I purchased a goTenna to broadcast my BTC transactions with TxTenna and Samourai Wallet. (44 points, 15 comments)
    2. I saw a Bitcoin ATM and I had to make a purchase. (28 points, 41 comments)
    3. 303-ish Days in the BTC Bear Market, This Sideways Motion Looks Like A Turn Around!!! (3 points, 16 comments)
  70. 75 points, 1 submission: hcarpach
    1. Venezuelan cryptocurrency miner: “we are police’s most wanted” (75 points, 21 comments)
  71. 73 points, 6 submissions: WorkCoin_Team
    1. “Bitcoin enables certain uses that are very unique. I think it offers possibilities that no other currency allows. For example the ability to spend a coin that only occurs when two separate parties agree to spend the coin; with a third party that couldn’t run away with the coin itself.” – Pieter Wui (66 points, 14 comments)
    2. Revolution of Bitcoin (5 points, 3 comments)
    3. A Funny Bitcoin Thought (2 points, 20 comments)
    4. Getting started with Bitcoin (0 points, 1 comment)
    5. Make your foundation strong (0 points, 0 comments)
    6. What are you not willing to compromise? (0 points, 6 comments)
  72. 73 points, 1 submission: ozdixon
    1. Bitcoin accepted at a absenth bar in Prague. (73 points, 11 comments)
  73. 72 points, 1 submission: Itasia
    1. What Are Atomic Swaps? Ultimate Guide (72 points, 16 comments)
  74. 71 points, 1 submission: MannyAndDrChurchShow
    1. I wonder if they would still honor this card.... (71 points, 9 comments)
  75. 68 points, 4 submissions: grittygatorr
    1. Liquid Network - the world’s first production Bitcoin sidechain has officially gone live (65 points, 100 comments)
    2. XDEX Advertises Commission-Free Bitcoin Trading in Brazil (2 points, 0 comments)
    3. Coinfloor to Cut on Staff and Reorganize Amid Volume Fluctuations in the Crypto Markets (1 point, 0 comments)
    4. Barclays Temporarily Suspends Work on Cryptocurrency Trading Project (0 points, 1 comment)
  76. 68 points, 1 submission: WouterGlorieux
    1. Introducing 'The Bitcoin Spellbook': an open-source REST API server for the back-end of (almost) any Bitcoin application. (Think of it as your own IfThisThenThat server but for Bitcoin) (68 points, 3 comments)
  77. 67 points, 1 submission: Vaultoro_official
    1. Leading up to the LightingNetwork Hackathon in NY, I thought I would post the talks we filmed at the Berlin lightningHackDay. Some amazing talks! (67 points, 1 comment)
  78. 65 points, 1 submission: Komodor123
    1. Do you speak more than one language? Then help spread Bitcoin around the world by translating Bitcoin.org! (65 points, 28 comments)
  79. 63 points, 1 submission: Sandiegosurf1
    1. Fidelity Launches Institutional Crypto Trading and Clearing. Let the institutional money flow! (63 points, 1 comment)
  80. 63 points, 1 submission: TearAnus-SoreAssRekt
    1. Buying PC Games With Bitcoin: Site Reviews (with some accepting Lightning!) (63 points, 7 comments)
  81. 62 points, 1 submission: CryptoCloaks
    1. We finally got our RaspiBlitz case to a level we love! Time for load testing to check thermals, final mods are almost done! (62 points, 10 comments)
  82. 61 points, 1 submission: sagiher
    1. #Liberte#CaribbeanBitcoin#ShoutOutToAllBitcoinDeveloperOutThere (61 points, 9 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. PragmaticParadox (465 points, 7 comments)
  2. ikarienator (462 points, 1 comment)
  3. Hanspanzer (434 points, 106 comments)
  4. Toyake (434 points, 71 comments)
  5. uglymelt (394 points, 3 comments)
  6. UsherTechs (377 points, 1 comment)
  7. isdudu (345 points, 4 comments)
  8. TyroneTheDriver (307 points, 1 comment)
  9. Rattlesnake_Mullet (296 points, 11 comments)
  10. andycam7 (282 points, 3 comments)
  11. dmdeemer (275 points, 1 comment)
  12. BTCkoning (266 points, 114 comments)
  13. CP70 (257 points, 7 comments)
  14. ascension8438 (239 points, 7 comments)
  15. Fly115 (226 points, 9 comments)
  16. haribo_2016 (220 points, 4 comments)
  17. dsmid (214 points, 1 comment)
  18. i_gotta_say (208 points, 87 comments)
  19. TheGreatMuffin (206 points, 56 comments)
  20. ebaley (198 points, 34 comments)
  21. bitsteiner (185 points, 86 comments)
  22. Redditridder (181 points, 5 comments)
  23. KupKhunKrap (173 points, 36 comments)
  24. 45sbvad (169 points, 3 comments)
  25. c3corvette (165 points, 2 comments)
  26. killerstorm (163 points, 8 comments)
  27. evilgrinz (158 points, 48 comments)
  28. chronic_nervosa (140 points, 1 comment)
  29. bigdaddysdick (136 points, 7 comments)
  30. castorfromtheva (129 points, 27 comments)
  31. Touchmyhandle (125 points, 12 comments)
  32. Euphoricsoul (122 points, 1 comment)
  33. WaterMac27 (122 points, 1 comment)
  34. DSXIII (118 points, 1 comment)
  35. RIMS_REAL_BIG (117 points, 24 comments)
  36. cryptogrip (112 points, 39 comments)
  37. WalterRyan (108 points, 10 comments)
  38. sudophant (107 points, 5 comments)
  39. NotSeeTroll (104 points, 37 comments)
  40. deadleg22 (104 points, 10 comments)
  41. shared_makes_it_real (103 points, 26 comments)
  42. alexiglesias007 (103 points, 7 comments)
  43. Buttoshi (102 points, 68 comments)
  44. flunderbossanova (102 points, 59 comments)
  45. lexihayes99 (101 points, 28 comments)
  46. mabezard (101 points, 2 comments)
  47. peniswithahoodie (98 points, 1 comment)
  48. beloboi (96 points, 65 comments)
  49. vovr (89 points, 3 comments)
  50. segells4soulsmogoblo (89 points, 1 comment)
  51. damchi (87 points, 21 comments)
  52. smadgerano (81 points, 14 comments)
  53. time_wasted504 (80 points, 34 comments)
  54. joeknowswhoiam (80 points, 16 comments)
  55. diydude2 (79 points, 26 comments)
  56. sQtWLgK (79 points, 17 comments)
  57. 989x4000 (78 points, 22 comments)
  58. sreaka (78 points, 16 comments)
  59. YoungScholar89 (78 points, 6 comments)
  60. Ellipso (76 points, 2 comments)
  61. HitsABlunt (76 points, 1 comment)
  62. almkglor (75 points, 39 comments)
  63. MrRGnome (75 points, 37 comments)
  64. Daddeus65 (75 points, 28 comments)
  65. whalecheetah (75 points, 25 comments)
  66. BCash_BeTrash (75 points, 23 comments)
  67. cipher-space (75 points, 19 comments)
  68. bnuttall (72 points, 2 comments)
  69. chrisrico (71 points, 26 comments)
  70. esdraelon (71 points, 8 comments)
  71. ale1ormont (71 points, 2 comments)
  72. igadjeed (70 points, 42 comments)
  73. Holographiks (70 points, 19 comments)
  74. frankieboy07 (70 points, 2 comments)
  75. snazzycoins (69 points, 12 comments)
  76. dmar198 (69 points, 11 comments)
  77. protoman86 (69 points, 7 comments)
  78. bitbug42 (68 points, 5 comments)
  79. CardCollector1 (66 points, 16 comments)
  80. hawks5999 (66 points, 7 comments)
  81. DefiantVerse (65 points, 12 comments)
  82. psionides (65 points, 8 comments)
  83. btc-forextrader (64 points, 37 comments)
  84. UniqueNewQuark (63 points, 5 comments)
  85. imaducksfan (63 points, 1 comment)
  86. bitusher (62 points, 23 comments)
  87. homad (62 points, 13 comments)
  88. torbitonsa (62 points, 7 comments)
  89. violencequalsbad (62 points, 7 comments)
  90. wwwdata (61 points, 20 comments)
  91. LadyRosedancer (61 points, 1 comment)
  92. Nunoyabiznes (60 points, 22 comments)
  93. pg3crypto (60 points, 13 comments)
  94. XxArmadaxX (60 points, 4 comments)
  95. awertheim (59 points, 27 comments)
  96. Ploxxx69 (59 points, 1 comment)
  97. TheGlassStone (59 points, 1 comment)
  98. moodytomatoes (58 points, 39 comments)
  99. Sneakybobo (58 points, 13 comments)
  100. UniqueCandy (58 points, 8 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Anti-crypto propaganda... promoted by American Express by Alexsayzz (4526 points, 513 comments)
  2. Someone just paid $0.10 to move $194M (29,999 BTC). Think about how powerful that is for a second. by MoonMan_666 (2369 points, 380 comments)
  3. When your boss thanks you for staying late at work but you were just watching the Bitcoin price and lost track of time by _Logicrypto (2077 points, 69 comments)
  4. ⚡Lightning Network at the Senate - Counterargument to Roubini's speech that Bitcoin can never scale to serve the planet by bitbug42 (1496 points, 186 comments)
  5. Why sell and pay capital gains, why not wait for mass adoption? That's my motto. by opencoins (1417 points, 244 comments)
  6. Took a while but finally part of the picture club (had to wait on the web browser update!) by awertheim (1174 points, 127 comments)
  7. Feeling good? by Hodl_it (853 points, 215 comments)
  8. Bitcoin ATM operator gets the $62,500 that police confiscated back by cointastical (833 points, 110 comments)
  9. Congratulations US senators for understanding crypto better than this guy by JandyJammer (748 points, 125 comments)
  10. ...in case you missed the laura shill burn today by lesbiansareoverrated (704 points, 100 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 462 points: ikarienator's comment in Feeling good?
  2. 456 points: PragmaticParadox's comment in Anti-crypto propaganda... promoted by American Express
  3. 387 points: uglymelt's comment in ⚡Lightning Network at the Senate - Counterargument to Roubini's speech that Bitcoin can never scale to serve the planet
  4. 377 points: UsherTechs's comment in When your boss thanks you for staying late at work but you were just watching the Bitcoin price and lost track of time
  5. 342 points: isdudu's comment in Anti-crypto propaganda... promoted by American Express
  6. 307 points: TyroneTheDriver's comment in Anti-crypto propaganda... promoted by American Express
  7. 276 points: andycam7's comment in Why sell and pay capital gains, why not wait for mass adoption? That's my motto.
  8. 275 points: dmdeemer's comment in Someone just paid $0.10 to move $194M (29,999 BTC). Think about how powerful that is for a second.
  9. 268 points: Rattlesnake_Mullet's comment in Someone moved 12,220 BTC ($82M) in block 545,877
  10. 244 points: CP70's comment in Anti-crypto propaganda... promoted by American Express
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/CryptoCurrency] Coin-a-Year: Raiblocks

The following post by coinaday is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been openly removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ CryptoCurrency/comments/7o66q0
The original post's content was as follows:
Howdy, folks! ?Welcome back to the show that never ends!?
I've decided it's high time I did a Coin-a-Year on Raiblocks. This is a special feature I do to recycle old material revisit past coins I've covered of special note a year or more later. I originally posted my Coin-a-Day feature about Raiblocks on this subreddit March 7th, 2016; it didn't get much attention then, but I have a strange feeling people might be slightly interested to see the difference now.
Below is the original report. I'll strike out what is wrong now, and add [bracketed notes] for updated commentary.
I'm no expert on the current state of Rai by any means. I'd honestly thought the coin was dead later in 2016; just didn't check back into it. And now here we are.
Bias note: I got a significant bit of Rai from the original faucet. I have sold a fraction of that this year but still have a lot of it. I'm biased both by holding it and from selling it.
Hello, y'all! I saw a comment pointing to this coin as being designed for free transactions, which is a core interest to me, so I decided to look into it a little bit and do a write-up. Enjoy!
Summary
Today's coin is Raiblocks (RAIXRB), which are designed to support free transactions and no block rewards. The coins will be initially distributed by a CAPTCHA controlled faucet with an annual halving rate.
[Faucet now closed.]
Initial creation: October 15th, 2015 [1]
Coin supply: 4.8 x 1012 rai current supply in circulation; 3.4 x 1014 rai maximum supply [2]
[XRB is the new standard base unit which was Mrai before (and still I suppose). Also, supply is distributed. So we now have about 133 million XRB as the outstanding and max supply.]
All-time high: Not yet traded as far as I know. [3]
[About $37.5 or 0.0028 per CMC max so far, about two days ago]
Current price: Not yet traded as far as I know. [3]
[Depending on the exchange and moment, somewhere around $30-35 currently or about 0.002-0.0022 BTC]
Current market cap: Not yet traded as far as I know. [3]
[Somewhere around $4 billion]
Block rate (average): Unlimited [4]
Transaction rate: ? [5]
[I'm too lazy to find this right now. Maybe someone will chime in with it in the comments.]
Transaction limit (currently): None [6]
Transaction cost: Free [7]
Rich list: ? [8]
[https://raiblocks.net/page/frontiers.php - Top 100 own ~63%]
Exchanges: None yet. [3]
[Bitgrail and Mercatox have been the two main. Kucoin just added it and Binance has it in its voting which is ending shortly.]
Processing method: Proof-of-stake [9]
[Above refers I believe to dispute resolution (double spend). There's also a minor PoW for send/receive.]
Distribution method: Faucet [10]
Community: New-born [11]
[Fairly strong and growing. Good memes. Slightly drunk on euphoria currently.]
Code/development: Active development at https://github.com/clemahieu/raiblocks
Leadership: Colin LeMahieu
Innovation or special feature: Protocol designed without a limited throughput or block rate, as well as not supporting block rewards nor transaction fees.
Description
Raiblocks is, as far as I know, the first cryptocurrency designed from its start to not support any block reward or transaction fee. In addition, it has no block size or rate limit. Further, all coins will be initially distributed through a captcha-controlled faucet on the main site. It's a bold attempt, going against the conventional wisdom of what is possible.
Edit: I should mention a couple things. First, there is a PoW attached to transactions as an anti-spam defense. This PoW can be attached by the recipient rather than the sender as well, which means that large automated sends could be done without the PoW if needed and the recipient could attach that.
Also, the natural question coming from how all the rest of the cryptocurrencies work is "how does it work without an incentive to run a node?" The idea presented in the whitepaper is basically that operating a cryptocurrency has a lot of expenses, and most of them are paid "out-of-band", so why not have funding nodes be that way too? It leaves it open to whatever other incentives there may be, of which the most obvious are first: that there are only full nodes so far, so if one wants to use the coin, then one is going to run a node. More long-term, even after SPV, presumably large holders might choose to operate one regardless. Someday, if merchants accept it, they would presumably run one. And enthusiasts. It sounds very tenuous, and this is why this is such an audacious attempt in my opinion.
After six months running, the number I heard for the blockchain size was about 20 MB, which is insanely small, but the coin has gotten so little attention that I suspect there hasn't been significant load yet. I'm very curious to see how it will perform under load. I think its design actually makes it more efficient when there aren't transactions, because nothing is added to the blockchain (actually termed block lattice here, but using blockchain generically to refer to any cryptocurrency's core data), unlike in the conventional / Bitcoin model where blocks are being generated whether or not there are transactions in them. Of course that doesn't matter much when there are tons of transactions, as on Bitcoin currently, but, for instance, in Nyancoin, we accumulate tons of empty blocks all the time, where Raiblocks would just wait for more transactions. However, again, under load perhaps it could start growing "too quickly" by some metric, or eventually reach the point where it starts losing users because of the requirements of running a full node.
I think it will be very interesting to see how this turns out in practice.
[And it's certainly going to be interesting to see how it goes. So far, it's still working. Which is better than I'd hoped or expected.]
Community
The coin is relatively young but even for a young coin it's not a huge community. But there is clear discussion and interest both on BCT and on their Google Group. It looks like a healthy start to me.
[As per my comment above: Fairly strong and growing. Good memes. Slightly drunk on euphoria currently. Seems well-intentioned generally: looking to try to have some caution mixed in and putting up a bug bounty and that sort of thing. Still has a little bit of some of the common negative characteristics in crypto communities but this may be due to growth from outside communities overwhelming the local culture temporarily more than anything.]
Footnotes
[1] https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1208830.0 - Initial announcement, didn't get much attention apparently. Also, this thread mentions a built-in block-explorer with a rich list. I don't have a working client to access this at the moment but that's pretty cool.
[2] There are 2128 total units, and a rai is 1024 total units, so total supply should be about 3.4 x 1014. https://github.com/clemahieu/raiblocks/wiki/Distribution-and-Mining Distribution has been going since about November 2015, so I would expect about one-third of the initial 50% to be distributed. The block explorer seems pretty primitive; it just takes a hash. No overall stats. So I'll use that one-third of the initial 50% estimate. So about 5.7 x 1013. Note by comparison that the faucet gives 108 coins at a time currently.
Actually, this comment puts the amount of rai in circulation as 4,763,023...that can't be right, that many Mrai I think? Yeah, 1030 stated as divider there. So 4.8 x 1012 rai in current circulation.
[3] https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/raiblocks/PSbX_onjLfU - This topic discusses it a bit. Also comments from meor in this thread
However, I have also paid 100 NYAN for 100 Mrai. This is basically a test transaction, but 1 NYAN for 1 Mrai (106 rai) would imply a marketcap of 4.8 million NYAN, or about 0.34 BTC in current circulation. I had initially thought this was higher before recalculating with the actual amount circulating as per [2]; may also have screwed up the math initially or here.
[4] https://docs.google.com/document/d/13s6BKzRq9oD5Me55JBRzR7BdvjJ44QKqPu2lf-JsAlU/edit - whitepaper ; each transaction could be thought of as its own block if I am grokking this right. It goes through as fast as the network can handle it. There is no fixed interval or period.
[5] I believe https://raiblocks.net/#/block-explorer is the only block explorer so far and it only supports entering a hash, so I don't have a way to determine the transactions in the last 24 hours.
[6] ...
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

Backup Wallet.dat

"1) I can backup my wallet by exporting a wallet.dat file. Do I have to do this everytime I receive more BBP? Or just whenever I add a new key? 2) How do I add new keys? 3) Can I generate and see the private key so that I can write it down/print it and store it somewhere safe?" -znffal
1) think of your wallet.dat file as your passbook in a passbook savings account. You have to have that .dat file to be able to access (and prove you SHOULD have access) to the BBP stored in your account addresses. Exporting it once is all you need.
2) Adding new keys? The passphrase (password) you use is the only "key" you would have in an encrypted wallet (besides the .dat file). If you mean new addresses, you can get those by going under File and Sending (or Receving) Addresses and hit "new".
3) Clicking Encrypt Wallet will be where you choose a passphase, I don't know you can see it other than when you enter it.
To put a real world example or two.
Example One: You don't ever encrypt or backup your wallet. If I borrowed/stole/hacked your computer, I could send all your coins to my wallet (no passphrase).
Example Two: You encrypt your wallet with the passphrase "secret" but don't backup the wallet.dat file, then your computer crashes and you lose all your data. Since you didn't have a copy of the wallet.dat file, your coins would be lost.
Example Three: You backup your wallet.dat but don't encrypt it. Your computer crashes and all your data is lost, but you re-download the QT program, restore your wallet.dat, all your coins are still in you wallet. But if you lose your USB drive that has the wallet.dat on it, and I find it, I can put your wallet.dat on another computer and send all your coins to my wallet.
Example Four: You encrypt your wallet and back up the wallet.dat file. If I hack/borrow your computer, unless I guess your passphrase your coins are safe. If you computer crashes, your can restore your wallet.dat file to another computer and your coins are safe.
In short, Encrypt your wallet (passpharse) and then backup (copy) the wallet.dat file to at least two locations." -616westwarmoth
"Find your wallet.dat file, copy it to a flash drive or any other secure place. If your computer crashes, you'll always have the wallet.dat and can put it on a new machine. It will have to resync a bit when you do, but you'll never lose your "key" to the wallet. Speaking of keys, you should password protect your wallet and make sure to remember it!"
"Yes you must have a copy of the wallet.dat somewhere. So multiple back up copies are a good idea. If you lose the wallet.dat file the coins will be in limbo but there will be no way to recreate the file. One thing to remember is it doesn't matter if the wallet.dat file is "current", it can be 10 years old on a flash drive and you can download a new client, put the wallet.dat file into the machine and you'll be good." -616westwarmoth
"In addition to this, whenever you reboot the node after more than 24 hours of being synced, we back your wallet.dat up into the "backups" folder. This is useful if you ever accidentally delete your wallet.dat.
Also, if you want a paper backup, you can do a 'dumpprivkey accountaddress' command from the RPC." -Rob
"wallet is a collection of private keys"
"there are other ways to achieve high security. You can make a new wallet, encrypt it with a long password, send coins to it, put it on a flash drive and put it in cold storage, then download the hard drive cleaning program and erase the wallet.dat sectors from your PC. And of course, keep a printed copy of the private key on paper and put it in a safe. Put the usb in the safe also. Burn a cd rom with the wallet.dat file and put it in the safe." -Rob
How to safely back up your wallet https://dashpay.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/DOC/pages/1867878/How+to+safely+back+up+your+wallet
Keep Your Crypto #SAFU (CZ's Tips) https://www.binance.com/en/blog/421499824684900429/Keep-Your-Crypto-SAFU-CZs-Tips
References: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2042657.msg23955128#msg23955128 http://forum.biblepay.org/index.php?topic=27.0 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2388064.msg27797529#msg27797529
To Read: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Wallet https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Storing_bitcoins https://bitcoin.org/en/secure-your-wallet
NOTE: As of version 1.4.3.1 we have updated to HD wallets, so you should not need to worry about keypools anymore if you have upgraded
"Regarding the Sanctuary, you receive payments always to the same address (key), so the keypool is not consumed for those payments. But when you click to generate a new address on the "Receive" tab, one key will be deducted from the keypool. Also, sometimes new addresses are automatically generated and the keypool is consumed, for example when solo mining and finding a block, a new address could be used for the block reward.
You can always check your current keypool size by typing "getwalletinfo" in the RPC console and see "keypoolsize" and "keys_left". It's only concerning if they are a low number and you plan to generate new addresses in your wallet. They start from 1000. If the number gets too low, you can just type "keypoolrefill" to refill them back to 1000 and then you should backup the wallet. But from my experience the wallet automatically refills the keypool from time to time (or after certain actions like transactions), because I see that my wallet file keeps getting larger and the "keys_left" returns to 1000.
The only issue is if you actively use your wallet on multiple computers (for example cloud mining or simply sometimes using the wallet on your laptop), then one wallet could refill the keypool with new addresses and the other one will not, or they will generate different new addresses. If I understand this correctly, for example, you could receive a payment on a new address generated in one wallet; your old balance will be there on both wallets, but only the one wallet where you generated the new address would show the new payment. Then you should copy the wallet.dat file to other computers, to update them.
If you use the wallet on just one computer, you should just backup the wallet from time to time (or when you see it has increased in size). Qt also backups wallet.dat automatically, those can be found in the folder %AppData%\BiblepayCore\backups, you will see that they also have timestamps in their names and possibly different sizes." -inblue
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2388064.msg27391534#msg27391534
submitted by togoshige to BiblePay [link] [comments]

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